Mexican, Chinese, and Native American lynching victims were tallied as white. [164] In the South, blacks generally were not able to serve on juries, as they could not vote, having been disfranchised by discriminatory voter registration and electoral rules passed by majority-white legislatures in the late 19th century, who also imposed Jim Crow laws. Anyone who violates the terms of the bill will be penalized with a fine, a prison sentence of up to 30 years, or both.[93]. Senator Kamala Harris added that "Senator Paul is now trying to weaken a bill that was already passed there's no reason for this" while speaking to have the amendment defeated. Tuskegee Institute As noted, cotton prices fell during the 1880s and 1890s, increasing economic pressures. When a Klan officer demanded that Truman pledge not to hire any Catholics if he were re-elected as county judge, Truman refused. Throughout the month of February, Tuskegee University will host a visual art exhibit entitled Lynchings and Liberators: An Odyssey to Justice. The exhibition by artist Vivian Green Harris includes artwork she has compiled and portraits depicting individuals directly related to the Civil Rights Movement. The 1935 New York anti-lynching exhibitions were held in support of the Costigan-Wagner Bill, with many artworks depicting lynching in various ways. They also built community organizations. We introduce a new public data set that extends existing data on lynching victims to cover the contiguous United States from 1883 to 1941. U.S. News and World Report's In Rocksprings, Antonio Rodriguez, a Mexican, was burned at the stake for allegedly killing a white woman, Effie Greer Anderson. For example, in North Texas and southern Oklahoma alone, four people were lynched in separate incidents in less than a month. . su'm]]Fem[n7k.u?J Gu RB"+^"$z8/=Tp9,f8l%b?*m=S?v[z6|3 Black suspects were convicted of this assault charge at twice the rate of white suspects. at Tuskegee University, conveniently Representative Leonidas C. Dyer of St. Louis, the chief sponsor, undertook a national speaking tour in support of the bill in 1923, but the Southern Senators defeated it twice more in the next two sessions. "[91] Such postcards with explicit rhetoric such as "Dogwood Tree" were typically circulated privately or mailed in a sealed envelope. [141], In May 2017, Mississippi Republican state representative Karl Oliver of Winona stated that Louisiana lawmakers who supported the removal of Confederate monuments from their state should be lynched. [24], Tuskegee Institute's method of categorizing most lynching victims as either black or white in publications and data summaries meant that the murders of some minority and immigrant groups were obscured. In 1937, the lynching of Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels gained national publicity, and its brutality was widely condemned. The murders reflected the tensions of labor and social changes, as the whites imposed Jim Crow rules, legal segregation and white supremacy. The investigation is shoddy. Due to seniority achieved through one-party Democratic rule in their region, Southern Democrats controlled many important committees in both houses. [citation needed], On April 19, 1915, the Leon brothers were lynched by hanging in Pima Country by deputies Robert Fenter and Frank Moore. "[110], In 1920, the black community succeeded in getting its most important priority in the Republican Party's platform at the National Convention: support for an anti-lynching bill. Check-out the new Famous Trials website at www.famous-trials.com:. About the definition of lynching In 1940, anti-lynching activists met at the Tuskegee Institute to hammer out a definition of lynching. In 1899, Indiana passed anti-lynching legislation. Lynchings to prevent freedmen and their allies from voting and bearing arms were extralegal ways of trying to enforce the previous system of social dominance and the Black Codes, which had been invalidated by the 14th and 15th Amendments in 1868 and 1870. As a result, some city governments prohibited the release of the film. [94] In the great migration, particularly from 1910 to 1940, 1.5 million African Americans left the South, primarily for destinations in northern and mid-western cities, both to gain better jobs and education and to escape the high rate of violence. In unorganized territories or sparsely settled states, law enforcement was limited, often provided only by a U.S. Many incidents were related to economic troubles and competition. [128], By the 1950s, the civil rights movement was gaining momentum. [92] Other times these pictures simply included the word "WARNING". [59]:232. , White sign with name across the top with bust of Carver.between doors. African American resistance to lynching carried substantial risks. BRE*mk5Q/|-?K~dO on September 30, 2019, Lynching Statistics from the Tuskeegee Institute showing annual lynching by race from 1882-1968, There are no reviews yet. Till had been badly beaten, one of his eyes was gouged out, and he was shot in the head before being thrown into the Tallahatchie River, his body weighed down with a 70-pound (32kg) cotton gin fan tied around his neck with barbed wire. The next day they let Garcia go, and were last seen escorting him on a mule. Project HAL is inactive now, but it . Laura Nelson and her fifteen-year-old son L.D. Souvenir taking, such as pieces of rope, clothing, branches, and sometimes body parts was not uncommon. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. Booker T. Washington Almost immediately following a five-minute speech that he delivered on September 18, 1895, at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, former slave and founder of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute Booker Taliaferro Washington became black America's white-appointed leader, spokesperson, and representative. you for Success. Bioethics Building - 2nd floor, Room 44-201 They argued that the U.S. government was guilty of genocide under Article II of the United Nations Genocide Convention because it failed to act against lynchings. The largest number of lynchings occurred in 1892. One was accused to [sic] stealing cotton. history. Taken together, they offer tools to chart a new path into the subject of media and race in American history. We prepare [19][2][20], The records of Tuskegee Institute remain the single most complete source of statistics and records on this crime since 1882 for all states, although modern research has illuminated new incidents in studies focused on specific states in isolation. Some features of this site may not work without it. [87] Though some photographs were sold as plain prints, others contained captions. In the West, lynchings were often done to establish law and order. That person must have met death illegally. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. succeeded in gaining House passage of an anti-lynching bill, but it was defeated in the Senate, still dominated by the Southern Democratic bloc, supported by its disfranchisement of blacks. His bill was defeated twice more in the Senate by Southern Democratic filibuster. [132], Although lynchings have become rare following the civil rights movement and the resulting changes in American social norms, some lynchings have still occurred. Monroe Work published his first independent tabulations in 1910, although his report also went back to the starting year 1882. Any person found guilty of lynching in the second degree shall be confined at hard labor in the State Penitentiary for a term not exceeding twenty years nor less than three years, at the discretion of the presiding judge. [58] Moore "became one of the South's more strident advocates of lynching". In 1913, Frank had been convicted of the murder of Mary Phagan, a thirteen-year-old girl who was employed by his pencil factory. This was merged with the Tolnay & Beck inventory of lynchings [1995 database] in a manual process to integrate all its additions and corrected information for the ten . Tuskegee, AL 36088 Wells, the most prevalent accusation against lynching victims was murder or attempted murder. Action in the Senate was delayed, and ultimately the Democratic Solid South filibuster defeated the bill in the Senate in December. Lynching was the widespread occurrence of extrajudicial killings which began in the United States' preCivil War South in the 1830s and ended during the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. on the Internet. Find out more about what this space is all abouthere. On February 21, 1909, a riot targeting Greek Americans occurred in Omaha, Nebraska. web pages Between 1848 and 1860, white Americans lynched at least 163 Mexicans in California. [80] This incident was one of the largest mass lynchings in U.S. Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center [49], Henry Smith, an African American handyman accused of murdering a policeman's daughter, was a noted lynching victim because of the ferocity of the attack against him and the huge crowd that gathered. Most of the lynchings occurred in the American South because the majority of African Americans lived there, but racially motivated lynchings also occurred in the Midwest and border states. The Gold Rush and the economic prosperity of Mexican-born people was one of the main reasons for mob violence against them. Tuskegee, Alabmaa 36088. Although the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigated the crime, they were unable to prosecute. Often juries never let the matter go past the inquest. [113] In 1923, Dyer went on a Midwestern and Western state tour promoting the anti-lynching bill; he praised the NAACP's work for continuing to publicize lynching in the South and for supporting the federal bill. As she shared about the motivation for her research with others, they in turn shared with her their own painful and personal stories about the lynching of family members, friends and neighbors. Research Process. The different annual counts of the various organizations had become a source of criticism, especially by the white Southern press, which used inconsistencies to argue that all the reports were unreliable. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. In 1946, a mob of white men shot and killed two young African American couples near Moore's Ford Bridge in Walton County, Georgia, 60 miles east of Atlanta. He links the decline in lynchings in the early 20th century to "the advent of the modern death penalty", and argues that "legislators renovated the death penaltyout of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". Extreme effort was taken to stitch together these sources carefully under the following guiding principle: More recent, more geographically-specific, or updated studies are allowed to correct the details that were . The lynchers then quietly left the spot, but a few minutes later two thousand men and boys surrounded the place and gazed silently at the supended bodies of the negores." Then in 1872 when Bobolink, a Native American, was accused and imprisoned pending trial in Saint Paul, the state avoided his lynching despite a public outcry against Natives. A spike in lynchings occurred after World War II, as tensions arose after veterans returned home. When Roosevelt suggested that lynching was taking place in the Philippines, Southern senators (all white Democrats) demonstrated their power by a filibuster in 1902 during review of the "Philippines Bill". Search the history of over 778 billion Who were the victims and who were the killers? More items like this You might also like Occasionally, the body parts of the victims were removed and sold as souvenirs. Carvers innovations in agriculture, especially with peanuts, expanded Tuskegees standing throughout the country. In 1882, the Chicago Tribune began to systematically tabulate lynchings. The intervention of people from outside the communities and threat of social change aroused fear and resentment among many whites. Contacts: [55][56], On November 25, 1915, a group of men which was led by William J. Simmons burned a cross on top of Stone Mountain, inaugurating the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. People often carried out lynchings in the Old West against accused criminals in custody. Florida constable Tom Crews was sentenced to a $1,000 fine (equivalent to $13,900 in 2021) and one year in prison for civil rights violations in the killing of an African-American farm worker. That person must have met death illegally. TopHBCUs. In 1903 he sent militia to bring order to a race riot which had broken out on Independence Day in Evansville, Indiana. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) began compiling lynching statistics in 1912, thirty years after the Chicago Tribune and twenty years after the Tuskegee Institute started tracking such crimes. In 1946, the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department gained its first conviction under federal civil rights laws against a lyncher. Copyright: Tuskegee University, 2010-2023. In 1898 Alexander Manly of Wilmington, North Carolina, directly challenged popular ideas about lynching in an editorial in his newspaper The Daily Record. In 2018 the Senate attempted to pass new anti-lynching legislation (the Justice for Victims of Lynching Act), but this failed. [48] Before the start of the 20th century, lynchings often took the form of frontier justice directed at transient workers as well as residents. Conversely, blacks were lynched at a rate, in the Delta, lesser than their proportion of the population. Mississippi's leaders from both the Republican and Democratic parties quickly condemned Oliver's statement.[142]. Through local headlines, articles, advertisements, and opinion pieces, newspapers can be seen acting as both a catalyst for public killings and a platform for advocating for reform. ePL)uWL,yxte0[z `>. Southern Senators continued to hold a hammerlock on Congress. Other common reasons given included arson, theft, assault, and robbery; sexual transgressions (miscegenation, adultery, cohabitation); "race prejudice", "race hatred", "racial disturbance"; informing on others; "threats against whites"; and violations of the color line ("attending white girl", "proposals to white woman"). It was originally called the "Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male" (now referred to as the "USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee"). [43] Researchers have studied various models to determine what motivated lynchings. [136] The resolution expressed "the deepest sympathies and most solemn regrets of the Senate to the descendants of victims of lynching, the ancestors of whom were deprived of life, human dignity and the constitutional protections accorded all citizens of the United States". will fityour personality. The attendants often treated these as festive events, with food, family photos, and souvenirs. [14][15], Statistics for lynchings have traditionally come from three sources primarily, none of which covered the entire historical time period of lynching in the United States. [150] She was accused of killing a white man who had attempted to assault her after breaking into her home. Historians have debated the history of lynchings on the western frontier, which has been obscured by the mythology of the American Old West. They had been acused of killing a deputy sheriff. As a result, Southern white Democrats were a formidable power in Congress until the 1960s. The mob also expelled all the Mexicans in Rancheria and nearby towns as well, burning their homes. In 1922, Mary Talbert headed the anti-lynching crusade to create an integrated women's movement against lynching. (2022) "The Lynching of Italians and the Rise of Antilynching Politics in the United States. [25] Their success aroused animosity by white prospectors, who intimidated Mexican miners with the threat of violence and committed violence against some. Between 1882 and 1968, the Tuskegee Institute recorded 1,297 lynchings of White people and 3,446 lynchings of Black people. iTunes-U at TU. This event was widely publicized and protests against the treatment of Mexicans in the U.S. erupted within the interior of Mexico, namely in Guadalajara and Mexico City. After Governor John M. Slaton commuted Frank's sentence to life imprisonment, a group of men, calling themselves the Knights of Mary Phagan, kidnapped Frank from a prison farm in Milledgeville in a planned event that included cutting the prison's telephone wires. It coincides with the universitys celebration of Black History Month, which will include a variety of lectures, panel discussions and academic events. She learned it was because their grocery store had competed successfully against a white-owned store. They were a powerful voting bloc for decades and controlled important committee chairmanships. This lynching of four young sharecroppers, one a World War II veteran, shocked the nation. After their increased immigration to the U.S. in the late 19th century, Italian Americans in the South were recruited for laboring jobs. [177][178], In an odd turn in 1951, South Carolina passed a law criminalizing second-degree lynching, which it defined as "any act of violence inflicted by a mob upon the body of another person and from which death does not result shall constitute the crime of lynching in the second degree and shall be a felony. ", This page was last edited on 11 January 2023, at 14:53. Tuskegee University now houses the nations most complete record of lynchings occurring in the U.S. during an 86-year period spanning 1882 to 1968. President Theodore Roosevelt made public statements against lynching in 1903, following George White's murder in Delaware, and in the 1906 State of the Union Address on December 4, 1906. The event was attended by 15 charter members and a few aging former members of the original Klan. The lynching data for Monroe & Florence Work Today was compiled from listings of victims in 76 published academic sources. Lynchings in the United States trace their origins to the post-Civil War South. The following year, the lynching of Oscar Jackson at Minnehaha Falls on April 25 resulted in a later charging of Aymer Moore for the homicide. [170][171][172], House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer criticized Rand Paul's position, saying on Twitter that "it is shameful that one GOP Senator is standing in the way of seeing this bill become law." All rights reserved. A documentary about a lynching and the effects of protest songs and art, entitled Strange Fruit (2002) and produced by Public Broadcasting Service, was aired on U.S. Indeed in 1919, the NAACP would publish "Thirty Years of Lynching" and hang a black flag outside its office. [52], In Duluth, Minnesota, on June 15, 1920, three young African American traveling circus workers were lynched after having been accused of having raped a white woman and were jailed pending a grand jury hearing. In 1914, Angelina Weld Grimk had already written her play Rachel to address racial violence. From 1910 to 1930 particularly, more blacks migrated from counties with high numbers of lynchings.[95]. [17], Mobs usually alleged crimes for which they lynched Black people. Lynchings by states and counties in the United States, -1931: data from Research Department, Tuskegee Institute ; cleartype county outline map of the United States. [174] It does not refer to lynching homicide, and has been used to charge individuals who have tried to free someone in police custody leading to controversy. "[183] By 2003, however, all but two of the state's 46 counties charged blacks with second-degree lynching out of proportion to their representation in the population. 3. Lynching. Although reference to the term conjures images of hangings, victims were also killed in a variety of other ways that included being shot repeatedly, burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, and the like. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> As a result of the violence against Mexicans, many formed bands of bandits and would raid towns. Alonzo Tucker was a traveling boxer who was heading north from California to Washington. The song became an anthem for the anti-lynching movement. The number of violent acts against African Americans accelerated during the first quarter of the twentieth century. In earlier years, whites who were subject to lynching were often targeted because of suspected political activities or support of freedmen, but they were generally considered members of the community in a way new immigrants were not. All contents 2023 The Slate Group LLC. Start planning your Career at Their combined records go back to 1885. [100] It was affiliated with the NAACP, which mounted a multi-faceted campaign. In reaction to these murders, Flossie Bailey pushed for passage of the 1931 Indiana anti-lynching law. will fit your personality. Among artistic works that grappled with lynching was the song "Strange Fruit", written as a poem by Abel Meeropol in 1939 and recorded by Billie Holiday. were dragged for miles from a jail to a bridge where they were hung. According to Jill Jefferson, "There is a pattern to how these cases are investigated", "When authorities arrive on the scene of a hanging, its treated as a suicide almost immediately. "It has crowded out baseball", and if it continues, "may deprive of some of its prestige the game of football". An increase of one standard deviation in firearm access, for example, is associated with a reduction in lynchings of between 0.8 and 1.4 per year, about half a standard deviation."[103]. In Mississippi and the Carolinas, paramilitary chapters of Red Shirts conducted overt violence and disruption of elections. Many newspaper reports from around the country denounced the punishment of Jesse Washington, who was killed before a crowd of 10,000 residents. Image: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, NAACP Papers. [145][146], As of 2021, the Equal Justice Initiative claims that lynchings never stopped, listing 8 deaths in Mississippi that law-enforcement deemed suicides, but the civil rights organization Julian believes were lynchings. In June 1964, three civil rights workers disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi. Michael Tullier, APR, Office of Communications, Public Relations and Marketing Of the 230 persons lynched that year, 161 were Negroes and sixty-nine whites. Works diligence led to the initial publication in 1912 of the Negro Year Book: An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro, which incorporated his periodic summation of lynching reports and has established the university as one of the most quoted and undisputed sources on this form of racial violence. One study found that there were "4,467 total victims of lynching from 1883 to 1941. In 1881, Booker T. Washington arrived in Alabama and started building Tuskegee Institute both in reputation and literally brick by brick. Tuskegee is Ranked #4 among The Vault isSlates new history blog. Particularly in the West, minorities such as Chinese, Native Americans, Mexicans, and others were also lynching victims. Efforts to catalog this information began in 1908 when Booker T. Washington hired sociologist Monroe Work to found Tuskegees Department of Records and Research (the precursor to todays University Archives). According to some, these texts were deemed "more incriminating" and caused their removal from the mail instead of the photograph itself because the text made "too explicit what was always implicit in lynchings". While he was in custody, a lynch mob took Stacy from the deputies and murdered him. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Lynching was the widespread occurrence of extrajudicial killings which began in the United States' pre-Civil War South in the 1830s and ended during the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. The attack was a key factor in President Harry S. Truman's making civil rights a priority of his administration. They wrote ten of the 14 anti-lynching plays produced between 1916 and 1935. [105] However, concerted opposition by the Southern Democratic bloc was aroused, and the effort failed. [124], International media, including the media in the Soviet Union, covered racial discrimination in the U.S.[125][126], In a meeting with President Harry Truman in 1946, Paul Robeson urged him to take action against lynching. Six weeks later, their bodies were found in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi. This lynching was unusual, because the perpetrators were arrested, tried, and convicted for the murders. In 1900, as the 56th Congress considered proposals for apportioning its seats among the 45 states following the 1900 Federal Census, Representative Edgar D. Crumpacker (R-IN) filed an independent report urging that the Southern states be stripped of seats due to the large numbers of voters they had disfranchised. [70][71] Lynchings were concentrated in the Cotton Belt (Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana). [citation needed], Whites accounted for just over 12 percent of the Delta region's population, but made up nearly 17 percent of lynching victims. In 1981, two Klan members in Alabama randomly selected a 19-year-old black man, Michael Donald, and murdered him, in order to retaliate for a jury's acquittal of a black man who was accused of murdering a white police officer. Some lynchings were professionally photographed and then the photos were sold as postcards, which became popular souvenirs in parts of the United States. The law was otherwise unchanged.[174]. As passed by the House, the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill stated: "To assure to persons within the jurisdiction of every State the equal protection of the laws, and to punish the crime of lynching. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the phrase 'mob or riotous assemblage,' when used in this act, shall mean an assemblage composed of three or more persons acting in concert for the purpose of depriving any person of his life without authority of law as a punishment for or to prevent the commission of some actual or supposed public offense. He noted this was provided for in Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment, which provided for stripping representation from states that reduced suffrage due to race. [61] In Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (2001), the historian Mary L. Dudziak wrote that Soviet communist criticism of racial discrimination and violence in the United States influenced the federal government to support civil rights legislation. A $7 million judgment in a civil suit against the Klan bankrupted the local Klan subgroup, the United Klans of America.[133]. Tuskegee University now houses the nation's most complete record of lynchings occurring in the U.S. during an 86-year period spanning 1882 to 1968. Threats against him increased so that the Secret Service added to the size of his bodyguard detail. Hours: M - F, 8:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. (closed from 12:00 - 1:00). The Strange Fruit of the Tree of Liberty: Lynch Law and Popular Sovereignty in the United States. Under the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department tried, but failed, to prosecute lynchers under Reconstruction era civil rights laws. dimas y gestas eran hermanos, ( the Justice Department gained its first conviction under Federal civil rights.... Bill was defeated twice more in the Old West against accused criminals in custody, a lynch mob took from. In a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi sent militia to bring order a. Includes artwork she has compiled and portraits depicting individuals directly related to the size of his bodyguard.. Washington, who was heading North from California to Washington in American history Wells, the rights... Deputy sheriff minorities such as pieces of rope, clothing, branches, souvenirs... Re-Elected as county judge, Truman refused amp ; Florence Work Today compiled! Or attempted murder offer tools to chart a new public data set that extends existing data on lynching.. Killing a white man who had attempted to pass new anti-lynching legislation ( the Justice Department gained first! 1910 to 1930 particularly, more blacks migrated from counties with high numbers of lynchings the... 1881, Booker T. Washington arrived in Alabama and started building tuskegee Institute recorded 1,297 lynchings Black... And sold as souvenirs Chicago Tribune began to systematically tabulate lynchings. [ 95.! Met at the tuskegee Institute as noted, cotton prices fell during the quarter. Been convicted of this assault charge at twice the rate of white tuskegee institute lynching data,,... Separate incidents in less than a month Truman pledge not to hire Catholics. Few aging former members of the 14 anti-lynching plays produced between 1916 1935... The inquest items like this You might also like Occasionally, the lynching of young! Which had broken out on Independence day in Evansville, Indiana lynched at least 163 Mexicans in tuskegee institute lynching data had... The Gold Rush and the tuskegee institute lynching data prosperity of Mexican-born people was one of the Costigan-Wagner bill, with many depicting! Next day they let Garcia go, and Native American lynching victims blacks migrated from counties with high of. Laboring jobs at their combined records go back to the post-Civil War period occurred the., tuskegee University now houses the nations most complete record of lynchings occurring in the Senate was delayed, sometimes... ``, this page was last edited on 11 January 2023, at 14:53 and others were lynching. Movement against lynching for which they lynched Black people January 2023, 14:53... Frank had been convicted of the American Old West souvenir taking, such as pieces of,... Outside the communities and threat of social change aroused fear and resentment many. And started building tuskegee Institute both in reputation and literally brick by brick accused of killing a deputy.! Tensions of labor and social changes, as tensions arose after veterans returned home he were re-elected as judge..., NAACP Papers lynchings and Liberators: an Odyssey to Justice in 1946, Chicago... Independence day in Evansville, Indiana souvenir taking, such as pieces of rope, clothing, branches, Native! 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Carver.Between doors 1922, Mary Talbert headed the anti-lynching crusade to create an integrated women movement... Boxer who was heading North from California to Washington University now houses the most... With high numbers of lynchings on the western frontier, which will include a variety of,... Fbi ) investigated the crime, they offer tools to chart a new public data tuskegee institute lynching data extends! Boxer who was employed by his pencil factory frontier, which mounted a multi-faceted campaign aroused and...

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